06年10月自考“英语(二)”串讲资料

2019-07-10 四川自考成考
59|
语法主要考哪些项目?

  英语(二)最常考的语法项目包括:动词时态和语态、非谓语动词、虚拟语气、定语从句、名词性从句、状语从句、比较级、语序、主谓一致、强调句、基本句型。

  * 最常考的时态:现在完成时、过去完成时、过去时、一般现在时和将来完成时。

  * 最常考的非谓语动词:独立结构、动名词作某些动词的宾语、非谓语动词作定语和状语。

  * 最常考的虚拟语气:与过去事实相反的虚拟语气的从句和主句。

  * 最常考的定语从句:where 引导的定语从句、名词/代词+ of + which引导的定语从句。

  * 名词性从句:what,whether 引导的主语或宾语从句、that 引导的同位语从句。

  * 状语从句:now that,in that,in case,as,while 引导的状语从句。

  哪些词最有可能考单词拼写?

  严格来说,只要是考纲中包括的词都有可能出现在单词拼写大题中,但是从历年考题可以看出,某些词的命中率要高于其它词,有些词甚至反复考过,这说明考生在背单词的时候还是可以在全面覆盖的基础之上突出重点、提高效率的。在这里我们不可能一一罗列重要的词汇,下面是我总结的英语(二)常考单词的特点:

  * 绝大部分是长度在5-8个字母之间的中等难度的词,如:victim,gesture等;

  * 拼写和读音不完全对称的词,如:dumb,subtle等。

  * 个别非常简单、但课文中不是很常见的名词,如:tube.

  * 从词性上来看,最常考的依次是名词、形容词、动词、和副词。

  在复习这些单词时,一定要以考试大纲为准,而不能只背教材后面的生词表。一方面,教材后面的生词表中包含了不少超刚词,完全不会考到;另一方面,对英语(二)来说,从下册教材生词表中出的单词只占三分之一,不可能涵盖所有要考的内容。同样在复习时一定要讲究准确性,确保背一个记准一个,而不能只是记个大概,最后写出来每个都差不多但每个都有错。

  复习建议

  针对上述预测,我们如何制定冲刺阶段的复习计划呢?下面是我推荐的三步复习法。

  1.第一步,应该抽出半个月到二十天的时间,把书上可能考到的内容好好地总结一下。课文中涉及的重要的语法现象,如带虚拟语气、独立主格的句子,接动名词作宾语的动词,倒装句,强调句,what,that,whether引导的从句等,最好都分类摘抄下来。

  2.做完整理工作后,应该进入下一步,即通过一定量的模拟训练来熟悉考试题型、提高实战能力。模拟训练应注意以下几点:

  (1) 做题时,一定要独立完成。不管做题的过程多么困难,都要硬着头皮去做,只有这样才能在考场上发挥自如。

  (2)保持一定的频率也很重要。至少一周应该完成两套题,否则达不到强化的效果。

  (3)及时总结。如果做完几套题后反复出现同样的错误,一定要请老师对相关内容作详细的讲解,并针对性地多做巩固练习,直到问题得到真正的解决。

  (4)做完十套左右的模拟题后,应该再做几套最近几年的真题。这时你可以对自己的实际水平有一个比较准确的估计。哪些方面是你的长处,哪些方面还存在薄弱环节,并利用最后一两周的时间来进行弥补。

  (5)除了做题,这三个月期间应该天天坚持的是背单词。每天抽出半个小时至一个小时,把大纲词汇包括后面的词组至少从头至尾完整地过一遍,有可能考拼写的重点单词要动笔抄写,常用活用的词要记搭配,容易混淆的词放在一起进行比较。

  3.最后一周的总复习。考试前的最后一周应该再来一次全面的总复习。复习内容包括第一步中抄下来的课文中的重点句子、第二步作题时纪录下来的常出错的语法项,重点的单词,和总结出来的答题技巧。如果还有时间,也可以把最后做过的真题再做一遍。相信经过精心的计划和充分的准备,此刻的你一定成竹在胸,胜券在握了。

  2、重点语法知识讲解

  1.动词的时态和语态

  动词的时态和语态一览表

 时态
语态  
一般现在时   一般过去时   一般将来时  
主动
被动  
do
are done  
did
were done  
will do
will be done  
   现在进行时   过去进行时   将来进行时  
主动
被动  
are doing are being done   were doing
were being done  
will be doing  
   现在完成时   过去完成时   将来完成时  
主动
被动  
have done
have been done  
had done
had been done  
will have done
will have been done  
   现在完成进行时        
主动
被动  
have been doing        

  1.1 现在完成时

  发生在过去的动作一直持续到现在,或对现在仍有影响。

  现在完成时的标志: so far,by now/ up to now,for three years,since 1995,in the past two decades

  1.2 过去完成时

  过去的过去。

  1)said,reported,thought 等引导的间接引语中。

  He missed the train.

  He said he had missed the train.

  2)hardly…when,no sooner… than句型中表示先发生的动作

  No sooner had he got up than he received the call.

  3)与过去事实相反的虚拟语气中

  If I had tried harder,I would have won.

  I wish I had done better in the exam.

  1.3 完成进行时

  从过去一直持续到现在,没有间断。汉语提示语:一直

  The water has been running the whole night.

  1.4 过去时

  过去某一具体时间发生的事,不考虑与现在的关系。

  过去时的标志:yesterday,in 1995,last week,in the nineteenth century,five years ago 等等。

2.非谓语动词

  2.1 非谓语动词一览表

非谓语动词   形式   意义  
现在分词        
一 般 式   doing   主动 ,正在进行  
被 动 式   being done   被动 ,正在进行  
完成主动式   having done   主动 ,已经完成  
完成被动式   having been done   被动 ,已经完成  
过去分词   done   被动 ,已经完成  
动词不定式         
一 般 式   to do   主动 ,将要进行  
被 动 式   to be done   被动 ,将要进行  
完成主动式   to have done   主动 ,已经完成  
进行主动式   to be doing   主动 ,正在进行  

  2.2. 非谓语动词作状语

  动词不定式:1)目的状语;2)结果状语

  I came here to meet you. (目的)

  He hurried to the rail station only to miss the train. (结果)

  分词:1) 伴随状语;2)原因状语;3)条件状语 4)让步状语;5)时间状语

  Walking along the street,he met his old friend. (时间)

  Being very tired,my father didn't go out with us. (原因)

  Made by hand,the silk shirt is very expensive. (原因)

  Seen from the space,the earth looks like a blue ball. (条件)

  2.3 非谓语动词,状语从句和独立结构

  1) Having done their homework,the children began to play. (分词作状语)

  2) After having done their homework,the children began to play. (连词+分词)

  3) After they had done their homework,the children began to play. (状语从句)

  4) With homework done,the children began to play. (独立结构)

  2.4 非谓语动词作定语

  1) If there is no choice,there is no decision ___ (make)。 (to be made)

  2) Do you know the man ____ ( stand) in front of the house? (standing)

  3) The question ____ (discuss) at the moment is very important. (being discussed)

  4) The bridge ____ (build) in the 1950s is still in good condition. (built)

  2.5 动名词和动词不定式

  作主语和表语

  动名词作主语/表语表示一般、抽象的情况;动词不定时作主语表示具体某次的情况。

  Rising early is good for health.

  To rise early tomorrow is difficult for me.

  It is difficult for me to rise early tomorrow.

  My biggest wish is to go abroad.

  Seeing is believing.

  作宾语

  接动名词作宾语的动词:

  admit,acknowledge,avoid,appreciate,consider,delay,enjoy,escape,excuse,forgive,finish,include,involve,mind,put off,postpone,suggest,feel like,look forward to,be used to,be accustomed to,etc.

  接动词不定式作宾语的动词:

  want,tend,intend,pretend,hope,plan,expect,be supposed to,seem,be likely to,used to,be willing to,desire,force,prefer,start,begin

  接动名词和动词不定式有不同含义的动词:

  1) forget,remember,regret

  2) stop,continue

  3) need/ want

  4) allow doing/ allow sb to do

  (1) How can I forget meeting you for the first time?

  Sorry,I forgot to lock the door.

  (2) I can't stop laughing. Can you stop to give me a hand?

  (3) The grass needs cutting. The grass needs to be cut.

  (4) We don't allow smoking here. You are not allowed to smoke here.

3.虚拟语气

  第一大类:非真实条件下的虚拟语气

时间   从句   主句  
与现在事实相反   did/ were   should/could/would + do  
与过去事实相反   had done   should/could/would + have done  
与将来事实相反   were to do should do   should/could/would + do  

  If I were you,I would be happy to do it.

  If we had got the news,we could have prepared earlier.

  If the job were to succeed,you should work harder.

  第二大类:从句中用过去时或过去完成时的虚拟语气

  1) would rather + 从句

  2) wish + 从句

  3) if only + 从句

  4) as if/ as though + 从句

  5) It's time + 从句

  I would rather you didn't tell me the story now.

  I would rather you had told me the story yesterday.

  第三大类:从句中用should加动词原形的虚拟语气,其中should可省略。

  1) suggest,propose,advise,move(动议),ask,order,require,request,desire,insist,prefer 等动词后接的宾语从句;

  2) suggestion,proposal,advice,motion,order,requirement,request,desire,preference等名词后的同位语从句;

  3) important,necessary,essential,imperative,desirable,advisable,preferable 等形容词用在it is … that…句型中;

  4) lest,in case,for fear that 等引导的从句中。

  It is suggested that the meeting (should) be put off.

  It is my suggestion that the meeting (should) be put off.

  It is necessary that the meeting (should) be put off.

  He came to the office earlier lest he (should) miss the important meeting.

  4.定语从句和名词性从句

  4.1 定语从句:限制性和非限制性定语从句

  引导定语从句

  1)关系代词(在定语从句中作主语、宾语、表语):which,that,who,whom,whose

  2)关系副词(在定语从句中作状语):when,where,why,how

  名词性从句:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句

  引导名词性从句:

  1)主从连词(不在从句中作任何成分):that,whether,if

  2)连接代词(在从句中作主语、宾语、表语):what,which,who,whom,whose,whatever,whoever…

  3)连接副词(在从句中作状语):when,where,why,how

  4.2 定语从句和同位语从句的区别

  定语从句对名词进行修饰限制,而同位语从句阐述的是名词的具体内容。从语法上看,that,which在定语从句中做主语或宾语,而同位语的引导词that不在从句中担任任何成分。

  1)The story (that) he told me may not be true. 定语从句

  2)The story that he has made a fortune may not be true. 同位语从句

  4.3 什么时候用介词+which 的形式?

  如果定语从句缺主语或宾语,用that/ which 形式。如果定语从句缺状语,用介词+which形式。

  1)The place which I visited last week is very beautiful.

  2)The place in which I used to live is very beautiful.

  4.4 which 和 as 引导非限制性定语从句

  which 和 as 都能引导非限制性定语从句,修饰整个一句话。as有“正如”的意思,而which没有。

  1)He is easy to get angry,which is well known. 他很容易生气,这一点大家都知道。

  2)He is easy to get angry,as everybody knows. 正如大家都知道的那样,他很容易生气。

2.1 强化练习

  1.动词时态强化练习

  1. I was hired(hire)by a Saudi diplomat directly from the Philippines to work in London in 1989.

  解析:过去时的被动语态,标志语:1989.

  2. However,many people doubt whether this will reduce (reduce)the incidence of abuse.

  解析:一般将来时,表示“会减少”的意思。

  3. Up to that time,the blues had been(be)an essentially black medium.

  解析:过去完成时,标志语:up to that time,表示“过去的过去”。

  4. Of these 20,000,just under 2000 are being physically,sexually and psychologically abused(abuse)。

  解析:现在进行时的被动。

  5. If you do not(not,control)it,it will control you.

  解析:一般现在时。主讲从现:主句用将来时,但是时间状语、条件状语和让步状语从句中

  用现在时。

  6. You will enjoy your fun time more after you have completed(complete)your study responsibilities.

  解析:现在完成时,表示“已经完成”。

  7. Maintaining a healthy self-esteem is(be)a challenge that continues throughout life.

  解析:一般现在时,动名词做主语,谓语动词用单数。

  8. The second half of the nineteenth century witnessed(witness)the first extended translation into English of the writings of Eliphas Levi.

  解析:一般过去时,标志语:the second half of the nineteenth century.

  9. All the worries they might have felt for him were driven(drive)off by the sight of his cheerful face.

  解析:一般过去时的被动

  10. Attempts to break up this old system have been made (make)in every presidential election in the past one hundred years.

  解析:现在完成时的被动,标志语:in the past one hundred years.

  2.非谓语动词强化练习

  1. The mother didn't know who to blame(blame)for the broken glass.

  解析:who+动词不定式做know的宾语

  2. The children brought(bring)up in this way tend to be healthier.

  解析:过去分词作定语,表被动。

  3. It reminded the president to keep the campaign focused(focus)on the economy.

  解析:过去分词做宾补。

  4. Putting(put)food into an empty stomach helps synchronize the body clock.

  解析:动名词作主语。

  5. It seems reasonable to assume that,other things being(be) equal,they would prefer single to shared rooms.

  解析:现在分词用在独立结构中

  6. This poem,if translated (translate)word for word into Chinese,will make no sense.

  解析:连词加过去分词作状语

  7. They may have their passports removed(remove),making leaving or “escaping” actually impossible.

  解析:过去分词作宾补

  8. Her body,with hands and feet bound(bind),was discovered by a traveler early in the morning.

  解析:过去分词用在独立结构中

  9. I couldn't help but feel(feel) this is a very strange life.

  解析:couldn't help but 后接动词原形

  10. Let us consider the earth as a planet revolving(revolve)round the sun.

  解析:现在分词作定语

3.虚拟语气强化练习

  1. If it hadn't been for your help,we would have been (be) in real trouble.

  解析:与过去事实相反的虚拟语气的主句

  2. He would have given you more help,if he had not been (not be) so busy.

  解析:与过去事实相反的虚拟语气的从句

  3. It is high time that we took (take) firm measures to protect our environment.

  解析:It is high time +过去式的虚拟形式

  4. It was imperative that students finish (finish) their papers before July 1st.

  解析:It was imperative that+动词原形的虚拟形式

  5. They demanded that the right to vote be given (give) to every adult person.

  解析:demand所接宾语从句用动词原形的虚拟形式

  6. There was a mistake on my paycheck. I should have received (receive) $10 more.

  解析:与过去事实相反的虚拟语气的主句,表示“本应该收到”而实际上没有。

  7. I would rather he bought ( buy) the house next year.

  解析:would rather后接宾语从句,从句用过去式表示虚拟语气。

  8. The manager told us to be friendly to the visitors as if we had met (meet)them before.

  解析:as if 所引导的从句用过去完成式表示虚拟语气。

  9. Should she come tomorrow,I _________ take her to the museum.  × 正确答案为C

  [A] can

  [B] will

  [C] would

  [D] must

  解析:与将来事实相反的虚拟语气的主句。

  10. If we _________ everything ready by now,we should be having a terrible time tomorrow. 正确答案为A

  [A] hadn't got

  [B] didn't get

  [C] wouldn't have got

  [D] wouldn't get

  解析:从句与现在事实相反,但本身已经是现在完成时(从by now可以看出),所以变为过

  去完成时。

  4.定语从句和名词性从句强化练习

  1. Studies have shown _________ teenagers often suffer from depression. 正确答案为A

  解析:that 引导宾语从句

  [A] that

  [B] which

  [C] in which

  [D] in that

  2. It is a well-known fact _________ a person will move in a circle when he cannot use his eyes to control his direction. 正确答案为A

  [A] that

  [B] if

  [C] when

  [D] whether

  解析:that 引导同位语从句

  3. On the other hand concern is also growing about the possibility of a new economic order_________ resource-rich nations of the Third World would combine to set high commodity prices. 正确答案为C

  [A] which

  [B] what

  [C] that

  [D] in that

  解析:that 引导同位语从句

  4. It is not yet known _________ computers will one day have vision as good as human vision.

  正确答案为A

  [A] whether

  [B] if

  [C] that

  [D] how

  解析:it为形式主语,whether引导真正的主语从句

  5. Such attitudes amount to a belief _________ leisure can and should be put to good use. 正确答案为D

  [A] which

  [B] if

  [C] whether

  [D] that

  解析:that 引导同位语从句

  6. The reason for making a decision is _________ a problem exists,goals are wrong,or something is standing in the way of accomplishing them.   正确答案为D

  [A] why

  [B] because

  [C] where

  [D] that

  解析:that 引导表语从句

7. _________ developed was a music readily taking on various forms and capable of an almost limitless range of expression.  正确答案为A

  [A] What

  [B] Whether

  [C] That

  [D] Which

  解析:what 引导主语从句,并在主语从句中做主语

  8. Very few people understood this contract,_________ was very obscure.    正确答案为B

  [A] the language

  [B] the language of which

  [C] all it said

  [D] which it had said

  解析:the language of which引导非限定性定语从句,并在定语从句中做主语

  9. Often music was played out of doors,_________ nature provided the environment.  正确答案为D

  [A] which

  [B] that

  [C] in which

  [D] where

  解析:where引导非限定性定语从句,并在定语从句中作地点状语

  10. Many of us visited the industrial exhibition,_________,to our disappointment,we saw very few high-tech products.  正确答案为A

  [A] where

  [B] which

  [C] as

  [D] that

  解析:where引导非限定性定语从句,并在定语从句中作地点状语

  语法题答题要诀:

  1)牢记上述表格;

  2)分清楚题目属于哪种具体情况;

  3)熟练套用正确形式;

  4)最后再检查一下是否应作必要的改动:如是否被动,三人称动词后加s,动词的不规则变化等。

  复习指南:

  在理解上述表格的适用条件后,再通过大量作题来巩固,及时纠正出现的错误,我们一定能攻克语法难题,在语法部分得到一个理想的分数!

  三大原则:

  1.吃透A课文,看懂B课文;

  2.背熟可能考汉译英的句子;

  3.关注含有重点语法的句子。

  Unit 1

  1. The purpose of making a decision is to establish and achieve organizational goals and objectives.

  2. Managers must make a best guess at what the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance.

  3. For managers,every decision has constraints based on policies,procedures,laws,precedents,and the like.

  4. But the tendency to simplify blinds them to other alternatives.

  5. Decision makers must have some way of determining which of several alternatives is best—that is,which contributes the most to the achievement of organizational goals.

  6. Different individuals frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals,the best choice may depend on who makes the decision.

  7. People often assume that a decision is an isolated phenomenon.

  8. The literary critics should be as objective as possible in analysis and judgment.

  9. She is always ready to argue over the smallest issues.

  10. I argued him out of going on such a dangerous journey.

  11. Although he thought he was helping us with the job,he was only in the way.

  Unit 2

  12. The terms we would normally use to describe a scientific phenomenon are inadequate here.

  13. Astronomers and scientists think that a black hole is a region of space into which matter has fallen and from which nothing can escape.

  14. Some stars explode when their density increases to a particular point.

  15. This process of shrinking may be so intense that a black hole results.

  16. It is only recently that astronomers have begun specific research into black holes.

  17. Very advanced technology could one day make use of the energy of black holes for mankind.

  18. He has exerted all his strength to attain his goal.

  19. He has been exerting a lot of pressure on me to change my mind.

  20. The collapse of the government left the country in confusion.

  21. The research group launched out into a series of new experiments.

Unit 3

  22. Each time it is shown,the program starts a nationwide debate on the subject.

  23. In addition to this,a second doctor must confirm that these criteria have been met.

  24. In the vast majority of euthanasia cases,what the patient is actually asking for is something else.

  25. Euthanasia doesn't take into account that there are ways of caring for the dying.

  26. Anything that legally allows the shortening of life does make those people more vulnerable.

  27. Instructions will be sent immediately on request.

  28. Many people opposed building a new highway because of the great cost.

  29. She bore the whole burden of raising two children alone.

  30. Students are heavily burdened with home assignments.

  31. The committee demands that no member (should) be absent.

  Unit 4

  32. Of these 20,000,just under 2000 are being exploited and abused by their employers.

  33. In one of them,a Filipino maid was executed in Singapore after being convicted of murder,despite protests from various quarters that her guilt had not been adequately established.

  34. I was supposed to be paid £120 but I never received that amount.

  35. My employers always threatened to report me to the Home Office or the police.

  36. Many people doubt whether this will successfully reduce the incidence of abuse.

  37. So if they do complain,they risk being deported.

  38. It is the right to change employers which distinguishes employment from slavery.

  39. The student exploits every possibility to learn English.

  40. Our country is launching a campaign against waste.

  41. We should be always aware of the status of world affairs.

  42. There are likely to be more difficulties than you were prepared for.

  Unit 5

  43. The new music was built out of materials already in existence.

  44. They freely took over elements from jazz,from American country music,and as time went on from even more diverse sources.

  45. What developed was a music readily taking on various forms and capable of an almost limitless range of expression.

  46. In studio recordings,new techniques made possible effects that not even an electronic band could produce live.

  47. Electronic amplifiers also made possible a fantastic increase in volume,the music becoming as loud and penetrating as the human ear could stand

  48. Often music was played out of doors,where nature provided the environment.

  49 The social and political transformation of a country is essential to the development of the society.

  50. All theories originate from practice and in turn serve practice.

  Unit 6

  51. Robots,becoming increasingly prevalent in factories and industrial plants throughout the developed world,are programmed and engineered to perform industrial tasks without human intervention.

  52. The robots used in nuclear power plants handle the radioactive materials,preventing human personnel from being exposed to radiation.

  53. Robots differ from automatic machines in that after completion of one specific task,they can be reprogrammed by a computer to do another one.

  54. Other engineers are writing new programs allowing robots to make decisions such as whether to discard defective parts in finished products.

  55. These future robots,assembled with a sense of touch and the ability to see and make decisions,will have plenty of work to do.

  56. Anyone wanting to understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics.

  57. His words cast a new light on the problem.

  58. We should be aware of the dangers of exposing children to violence on TV.

  Unit 7

  59. People in advanced industrial societies are increasingly concerned with opportunities for leisure and what they can do in their leisure time.

  60. Generally speaking,the quality of life,especially as seen by the individual,is meaningful in terms of the degree to which these various areas of life are available or provide satisfaction to the individual.

  61. The specific use of leisure varies from individual to individual.

  62. Experiences of a different nature,be it television watching or bird-watching,can lead to a self-renewal and a more “balanced” way of life.

  63. Such attitudes amount to a recognition that leisure is an important area of life and a belief that leisure can and should be put to good use.

  64. To impart positive leisure attitudes to the general public is essential for motivating them to use their leisure in creative and satisfying ways.

  65. It can be argued that the people with whom we come into contact in these various contexts are all likely to have exerted some influence in shaping our attitudes,interests and even skills relevant to how we handle leisure.

  66. The more seriously this is sought,the more likely positive attitudes towards leisure as well as academic work will be encouraged.

  67. You have to attach a label to a box while posting it.

  68. We should make our lives relevant to the needs of the country.

  69. He always has some positive ideas on company policy.

  Unit 8

  70. The problem of Jet Lag is one every international traveler comes across at some time.

  71. The effects of rapid travel on the body are actually far more disturbing than we realize.

  72. He later blamed his poor judgment on Jet Lag.

  73. Now that we understand what Jet Lag is,we can go some way to overcoming it.

  74. In time,the physiological system will reset itself,but it does take time.

  75. It is not feasible to wait four days until the body is used to the new time zone.

  76. That is by no means the best way of proceeding.

  77. He didn't take alarm at the news.

  78. The pianist promoted a grand benefit concert.

  79. He didn't want to be tied to a steady job.

Unit 9

  80. The nearer a society approximates to zero population growth,the older its population is likely to be—at least,for any future that concerns us now.

  81. To these now familiar facts a number of further facts may be added,some of them only recently recognized.

  82. There is the appreciation of the salient historical truth that the aging of advanced societies has been a sudden change.

  83. Taken together,these things have implications which are only beginning to be acknowledged.

  84. There is often resistance to the idea that it is because the birthrate fell earlier in Western and Northwestern Europe than elsewhere,… that we have grown so old.

  85. Long life is altering our society,of course,but in experiential terms.

  86. Your account of what happened approximates to the real facts.

  87. His earnings are out of all proportion to his skill and ability.

  Unit 10

  88. A minor-party or independent candidate,… can draw votes away from the major-party nominees but stands almost no chance of defeating them.

  89. In deciding whether to pursue a course of action,they try to estimate its likely impact on the voters.

  90. The slogan was meant as a reminder to the candidate and the staff to keep the campaign focused on the nation's slow-moving economy.

  91. Whether voters accept this image,however,depends more on external factors than on a candidate's personal characteristics.

  92. As in 1980,when Jimmy Carter lost to Ronald Reagan during tough economic times,the voters were motivated largely by a desire for change.

  93. Bush tried to stir images of his strong leadership of the war,but voters remained concerned about the economy.

  94. The invention is going to cause a big stir in the world.

  95. You should save up money to make provision for the future.

  Unit 11

  96. Animal research is irrelevant to our health and it can often produce misleading results.

  97. It would be completely irresponsible and unethical to use drugs on people that had not been thoroughly tested on animals.

  98. One experiment in nerve regeneration involves cutting a big nerve in a rat's leg,leaving its leg paralysed.

  99. Even with these new developments in research,only a tiny proportion of all tests are done without using animals at some stage.

  100.The use of animals in experiments cannot stop immediately if medical research is to continue and consumer products are to be properly tested.

  101. When it comes to research into heart disease and its effects on the body,we do not have adequate substitutes for the use of animals.

  102. I was surprised to see his room in such a litter.

  103. The conditions that existed ten years ago are reproduced today.

  Unit 12

  104. Until recently daydreaming was generally considered either a waste of time or a symptom of neurotic tendencies.

  105. At its best,daydreaming was considered a compensatory substitute for the real things in life.

  106. As with anything carried to excess,daydreaming can be harmful.

  107. There is a growing body of evidence to support the fact that most people suffer from a lack of daydreaming rather than an excess of it.

  108. Daydreaming significantly contributes to intellectual growth,power of concentration,and the ability to interact and communicate with others.

  109. Daydreaming resulted in improved self-control and enhanced creative thinking ability.

  110. Contrary to popular belief,constant and conscious effort at solving a problem is,in reality,one of the most inefficient ways of coping with it.

  111. Whenever confronted with a task which seemed too hard to be dealt with,he would stretch out on his laboratory sofa and let fantasies flood his mind.

  112. The important thing to remember is to picture these desired objectives as if you had already attained them.

  113. Daydreaming is highly beneficial to your physical and mental well-being.

  114. Escape being impossible,the rabbit turned to confront the dog.

  115. The difficulties that confront us cannot be overcome.

  Unit 13

  116. He cannot be really happy if he is compelled by society to do what he does not enjoy doing,or if what he enjoys doing is ignored by society as of no value or importance.

  117. In a society where slavery in the strict sense has been abolished,the sign that what a man does is of social value is that he is paid money to do it.

  118. What from the point of view of society is necessary labor is from his own point of view voluntary play.

  119. Whether a job is to be classified as labor or work depends,not on the job itself,but on the tastes of the individual who undertakes it.

  120. It is already possible to imagine a society in which the majority of the population,that is to say,its laborers,will have almost as much leisure as in earlier times was enjoyed by the aristocracy.

  121. The masses are more likely to replace an unchanging ritual by fashion which it will be in the economic interest of certain people to change as often as possible.

  122. Workers seldom commit acts of violence,because they can put their aggression into their work,be it physical like the work of a smith,or mental like the work of a scientist or an artist.

  123. They were often compelled to work twelve or fourteen hours a day.

  124. The police undertook detailed and comprehensive investigations into the case.

Unit 14

  125. The device,though,would do much more than capture a lecture.

  126. It was a microcassette found in Kathleen Weinstein's shirt pocket that not only led police to her alleged killer but also revealed the New Jersey teacher to be a woman of extraordinary courage and compassion.

  127. Grabbing Weinstein by the jaw,the attacker told her he had a gun and forced her into the Camry.

  128. It was there,police believe,that Weinstein was able to activate the recorder she kept in her bag.

  129. Her power of persuasion were to no avail.

  130. Weinstein's body,with hands and feet bound,was discovered by a hiker in March.

  131. Given her fate,the name of the program has a heartbreaking resonance to it: Random Acts of Kindness.

  132. The operation fostered hope in the patient.

  133. We protested but to no avail.

  134. He was firmly convinced that risk accompanies decisions.

  Unit 15

  135. The computer makes possible a marvellous leap in human proficiency.

  136. But the question persists and indeed grows whether the computer will make it easier or harder for human beings to know who they really are…。

  137. There may be a tendency to mistake data for wisdom,just as there has always been a tendency to confuse logic with values,and intelligence with insight.

  138. To the extent,then,that man fail to distinguish between the intermediate operations of electronic intelligence and the ultimate responsibilities of human decision,the computer could prove a digression.

  139. It may promote undue confidence in concrete answers.

  140. …before we lose ourselves in celebrating the victory,we might reflect on the great advances in the human situation that have come about because men were challenged by error and would not stop thinking and exploring until they found better approaches for dealing with it.

  141. For the danger is not so much that man will be controlled by the computer as that he may imitate it.

  142. Even to speculate on it is a gain.

  143. If you persist in ignoring my instructions,I shall have to punish you.

  144. His ultimate goal is too distant and shadowy to obtain.

  145. Despite their differences,their love will conquer.

  146. It has taken him a long time to come to terms with the fact that he won't be able to go to college.

  4、解题思路及答题技巧

  两大原则:

  (1)先做主观题,再做客观题。

  (2)按分值合理分配时间。

  1.完型填空:

  (1)上看下看,左看右看,充分利用上下文。

  (2)熟记固定搭配。

  For over a hundred years Japan has consistently spent large sums of money and considerable human resources in an effort to obtain technology. Her ability to negotiate _________11 by the fact that most of the technology she wanted was no commercial secrets.

  Japan's _________12 has also been strengthened by the fact that her internal market was large,so that _________13 to this market could be offered to multinational companies as an attraction to them to grant licenses. Besides,Japan's work force was disciplined,so it was capable _________14 applying the information it acquired. Finally,American and European companies,who were _________15 licensers, felt that the Japanese companies might take a large share of the world market _________16 they were not limited by licensing agreement.

  Conditions of this sort,_________17 together in one nation,may well be unique,and the case of Japan may therefore not actually demonstrate that licensing is just as efficient as multinational ownership for the _________18 of technology.

  In fact,Japan may be finding this method of operation _________19 effective than in the past,as her needs for outside technology now require information which _________20 only a few companies and is more closely held.

  11.A. was strengthened

  B. will be strengthened

  C. will have been strengthened

  D. has been strengthened

  12.A. position

  B. location

  C. place

  D. point

  13.A. entry

  B. access

  C. presence

  D. acceptance

  14.A. at

  B. in

  C. for

  D. of

  15.A. potential

  B. feasible

  C. liable

  D. inevitable

  16.A. until

  B. before

  C. if

  D. after

  17.A. came

  B. come

  C. will come

  D. coming

18.A. transformation

  B. transfer

  C. transmission

  D. shift

  19.A. much

  B. little

  C. less

  D. more

  20.A. sticks to

  B. belongs to

  C. draws on

  D. takes on

  答案:11D A B D A 16C D B C B

  2.阅读理解:

  (1)根据问题来看文章。

  (2)围绕中心思想答题。

  (3)灵活运用各种猜题技巧。

  (4)充分发挥有关背景知识的作用。

  例2:(2004下)

  NASA,the U.S. space agency,believes there's a good chance that we're not alone in the universe. Last fall,NASA began a new project called the High Resolution Microwave Survey(HRMS).Its aim:to find evidence of life in one of the billions of galaxies in the universe.

  The search for intelligent life on other planets isn't new. It began almost 100 years ago. That's when scientists built a huge transmitter to send radio waves into space. Scientists thought smart beings on other planets might pick up the signals.

  Scientists also have sent a message about humans and our solar system to a nearby constellation(星座)。But because the constellation is 25,000 light years away,a return message wouldn't reach Earth for 50,000 years!So don't wait up for an answer.

  So far,no extraterrestrial (地球外的)beings that we know of have returned our “calls.” But according to Dr. Jill Tarter,an HRMS scientist,we haven't exactly had our ears wide open. “Now,however” says Dr. Tarter, “we've built the tools we need to listen well.”

  Last October,Dr. Tarter switched on the largest radio receiver in the world. It's an enormous metal bowl stretching 1,000 feet across a valley in Puerto Rico.

  Meanwhile,another NASA scientist turned on a huge radio receiver in California's Mojave Desert. NASA hopes these big dishes-and others around the world-will pick up radio signals from new world.

  Dr. Frank Drake has been searching for life in outer space for years. He explains the HRMS project this way:To listen to your radio,you move the tuner on the dial until the channels come in loud and clear:Now imagine radio receivers that scan our galaxy “listening” to 14 million channels every second. That's what NASA's radio receivers in Puerto Rico and California are doing.

  But that's not all. Powerful computers hooked to the receivers examine every signal carefully. The computers try to match the signals to ones that scientists already recognize, such as human-made signals. If they can't,Drake and Tarter check on them. “It could prove there is radio technology elsewhere in the universe,” says Dr. Tarter. “And that would mean we're not alone.”

  26.NASA scientists started a new project in order to _________.

  A. discover life in other galaxies

  B. send human beings into space

  C. find evidence of a new galaxy

  D. confirm the number of galaxies

  27.According to Dr. Jill Tarter,the reason why we haven't received any return any return messages from outer space is that _________.

  A. our ears are not sharp enough to hear them

  B. our equipment hasn't been good enough

  C. it takes millions of years for them to reach us

  D. it takes quite a long time to send them

  28.Dr. Jill Tarter compares the large receiver to _________.

  A. the human ear

  B. the universe

  C. a metal bowl

  D. a huge dish

  29.According to Dr. Frank Drake,NASA's radio receivers in Puerto Rico and California are _________.

  A. trying to check on every channel carefully

  B. moving the tuner on the dial for clear channels

  C. scanning the universe for possible signals

  D. picking up radio signals from new world

  30.The best title of this passage is _________.

  A. Signals from the Space

  B. The Invention of New Radio Receivers

  C. The Intelligent Life in Outer Space

  D. NASA Listens for Space Neighbors

  答案:26 A B A C D

  3. 英译汉

  先看懂全文大意,再用比较通顺的汉语翻译,不必拘泥于原来英文句内的顺序,在不损害原意的基础上适当地增词和减词。

  例3:

  I've spent years studying happiness,and one of the most significant conclusions I've drawn is this:there is little correlation between the circumstances of people's lives and how happy they are. A moment's reflection should make this obvious. We all know people who have had a relatively easy life yet are essentially unhappy. And we know people who have suffered a great deal but generally remain happy.

  The first secret is gratitude. All happy people are grateful. Ungrateful people cannot be happy. We tend to think that being unhappy leads people to complain,but it's truer to say that complaining leads people to unhappiness. The second secret is realizing that happiness is a byproduct of something else. The most obvious sources are those pursuits that give our lives purposes—anything from studying insects to playing baseball. The more passions we have,the more happiness we're likely to experience.

  我花了几年的时间来研究快乐,我得出的一个最重要的结论是:人们的生活状况和他们有多快乐没有多少相关性。片刻的思考就会把这点弄明白。我们都认识一些生活相对轻松但根本不快乐的人,我们也认识一些吃了很多苦但仍能总的保持快乐的人。

  第一个秘诀就是感激。所有快乐的人都心怀感激,没有感激心情的人不可能快乐。我们往往认为不快乐使得人们抱怨,但是更准确地说应该是抱怨导致人们不快乐。第二个秘诀是认识到快乐是其他事物的副产品。快乐最显而易见的来源是那些使得我们的生活具有目的性的活动——从研究昆虫到打棒球。我们越有激情,我们就越可能体验快乐。

本站所提供的部分文章资讯、软件资源、素材源码等内容均为作者提供、网友推荐、互联网整理而来 (部分报媒/平媒内容转载自网络合作媒体),仅供学习参考,如有侵犯您的版权,请联系我们,本职校招生网将在三个工作日内改正。



看了这篇文章的人还看了:

  • 07年7月中英合作专业“商
  • 自考“公文写作与处理”
  • 南艺主考的“艺术概论”
  • 06年10月自考“英语(二)
  • 自考“广告学(二)”知
  • 发表评论:

    搜索
    成人学历动态
    学历提升
    成人大专学历·标签列表