* 最常考的定语从句：where 引导的定语从句、名词/代词+ of + which引导的定语从句。
* 名词性从句：what，whether 引导的主语或宾语从句、that 引导的同位语从句。
* 状语从句：now that，in that，in case，as，while 引导的状语从句。
|will do |
will be done
|are doing are being done||were doing
were being done
|will be doing|
have been done
had been done
|will have done |
will have been done
|have been doing|
现在完成时的标志： so far，by now/ up to now，for three years，since 1995，in the past two decades
He missed the train.
He said he had missed the train.
2）hardly…when，no sooner… than句型中表示先发生的动作
No sooner had he got up than he received the call.
If I had tried harder，I would have won.
I wish I had done better in the exam.
The water has been running the whole night.
过去时的标志：yesterday，in 1995，last week，in the nineteenth century，five years ago 等等。
|一 般 式||doing||主动 ，正在进行|
|被 动 式||being done||被动 ，正在进行|
|完成主动式||having done||主动 ，已经完成|
|完成被动式||having been done||被动 ，已经完成|
|一 般 式||to do||主动 ，将要进行|
|被 动 式||to be done||被动 ，将要进行|
|完成主动式||to have done||主动 ，已经完成|
|进行主动式||to be doing||主动 ，正在进行|
I came here to meet you. （目的）
He hurried to the rail station only to miss the train. （结果）
分词：1） 伴随状语；2）原因状语；3）条件状语 4）让步状语；5）时间状语
Walking along the street，he met his old friend. （时间）
Being very tired，my father didn't go out with us. （原因）
Made by hand，the silk shirt is very expensive. （原因）
Seen from the space，the earth looks like a blue ball. （条件）
1） Having done their homework，the children began to play. （分词作状语）
2） After having done their homework，the children began to play. （连词+分词）
3） After they had done their homework，the children began to play. （状语从句）
4） With homework done，the children began to play. （独立结构）
1） If there is no choice，there is no decision ___ （make）。 （to be made）
2） Do you know the man ____ （ stand） in front of the house？ （standing）
3） The question ____ （discuss） at the moment is very important. （being discussed）
4） The bridge ____ （build） in the 1950s is still in good condition. （built）
Rising early is good for health.
To rise early tomorrow is difficult for me.
It is difficult for me to rise early tomorrow.
My biggest wish is to go abroad.
Seeing is believing.
admit，acknowledge，avoid，appreciate，consider，delay，enjoy，escape，excuse，forgive，finish，include，involve，mind，put off，postpone，suggest，feel like，look forward to，be used to，be accustomed to，etc.
want，tend，intend，pretend，hope，plan，expect，be supposed to，seem，be likely to，used to，be willing to，desire，force，prefer，start，begin
3） need/ want
4） allow doing/ allow sb to do
（1） How can I forget meeting you for the first time？
Sorry，I forgot to lock the door.
（2） I can't stop laughing. Can you stop to give me a hand？
（3） The grass needs cutting. The grass needs to be cut.
（4） We don't allow smoking here. You are not allowed to smoke here.
|与现在事实相反||did/ were||should/could/would + do|
|与过去事实相反||had done||should/could/would + have done|
|与将来事实相反||were to do should do||should/could/would + do|
If I were you，I would be happy to do it.
If we had got the news，we could have prepared earlier.
If the job were to succeed，you should work harder.
1） would rather + 从句
2） wish + 从句
3） if only + 从句
4） as if/ as though + 从句
5） It's time + 从句
I would rather you didn't tell me the story now.
I would rather you had told me the story yesterday.
1） suggest，propose，advise，move（动议），ask，order，require，request，desire，insist，prefer 等动词后接的宾语从句；
3） important，necessary，essential，imperative，desirable，advisable，preferable 等形容词用在it is … that…句型中；
4） lest，in case，for fear that 等引导的从句中。
It is suggested that the meeting （should） be put off.
It is my suggestion that the meeting （should） be put off.
It is necessary that the meeting （should） be put off.
He came to the office earlier lest he （should） miss the important meeting.
1）The story （that） he told me may not be true. 定语从句
2）The story that he has made a fortune may not be true. 同位语从句
4.3 什么时候用介词＋which 的形式？
如果定语从句缺主语或宾语，用that/ which 形式。如果定语从句缺状语，用介词+which形式。
1）The place which I visited last week is very beautiful.
2）The place in which I used to live is very beautiful.
4.4 which 和 as 引导非限制性定语从句
which 和 as 都能引导非限制性定语从句，修饰整个一句话。as有“正如”的意思，而which没有。
1）He is easy to get angry，which is well known. 他很容易生气，这一点大家都知道。
2）He is easy to get angry，as everybody knows. 正如大家都知道的那样，他很容易生气。
1. I was hired（hire）by a Saudi diplomat directly from the Philippines to work in London in 1989.
2. However，many people doubt whether this will reduce （reduce）the incidence of abuse.
3. Up to that time，the blues had been（be）an essentially black medium.
解析：过去完成时，标志语：up to that time，表示“过去的过去”。
4. Of these 20，000，just under 2000 are being physically，sexually and psychologically abused（abuse）。
5. If you do not（not，control）it，it will control you.
6. You will enjoy your fun time more after you have completed（complete）your study responsibilities.
7. Maintaining a healthy self-esteem is（be）a challenge that continues throughout life.
8. The second half of the nineteenth century witnessed（witness）the first extended translation into English of the writings of Eliphas Levi.
解析：一般过去时，标志语：the second half of the nineteenth century.
9. All the worries they might have felt for him were driven（drive）off by the sight of his cheerful face.
10. Attempts to break up this old system have been made （make）in every presidential election in the past one hundred years.
解析：现在完成时的被动，标志语：in the past one hundred years.
1. The mother didn't know who to blame（blame）for the broken glass.
2. The children brought（bring）up in this way tend to be healthier.
3. It reminded the president to keep the campaign focused（focus）on the economy.
4. Putting（put）food into an empty stomach helps synchronize the body clock.
5. It seems reasonable to assume that，other things being（be） equal，they would prefer single to shared rooms.
6. This poem，if translated （translate）word for word into Chinese，will make no sense.
7. They may have their passports removed（remove），making leaving or “escaping” actually impossible.
8. Her body，with hands and feet bound（bind），was discovered by a traveler early in the morning.
9. I couldn't help but feel（feel） this is a very strange life.
解析：couldn't help but 后接动词原形
10. Let us consider the earth as a planet revolving（revolve）round the sun.
1. If it hadn't been for your help，we would have been （be） in real trouble.
2. He would have given you more help，if he had not been （not be） so busy.
3. It is high time that we took （take） firm measures to protect our environment.
解析：It is high time +过去式的虚拟形式
4. It was imperative that students finish （finish） their papers before July 1st.
解析：It was imperative that+动词原形的虚拟形式
5. They demanded that the right to vote be given （give） to every adult person.
6. There was a mistake on my paycheck. I should have received （receive） $10 more.
7. I would rather he bought （ buy） the house next year.
8. The manager told us to be friendly to the visitors as if we had met （meet）them before.
解析：as if 所引导的从句用过去完成式表示虚拟语气。
9. Should she come tomorrow，I _________ take her to the museum. × 正确答案为C
10. If we _________ everything ready by now，we should be having a terrible time tomorrow. 正确答案为A
[A] hadn't got
[B] didn't get
[C] wouldn't have got
[D] wouldn't get
1. Studies have shown _________ teenagers often suffer from depression. 正确答案为A
[C] in which
[D] in that
2. It is a well-known fact _________ a person will move in a circle when he cannot use his eyes to control his direction. 正确答案为A
3. On the other hand concern is also growing about the possibility of a new economic order_________ resource-rich nations of the Third World would combine to set high commodity prices. 正确答案为C
[D] in that
4. It is not yet known _________ computers will one day have vision as good as human vision.
5. Such attitudes amount to a belief _________ leisure can and should be put to good use. 正确答案为D
6. The reason for making a decision is _________ a problem exists，goals are wrong，or something is standing in the way of accomplishing them. 正确答案为D
7. _________ developed was a music readily taking on various forms and capable of an almost limitless range of expression. 正确答案为A
8. Very few people understood this contract，_________ was very obscure. 正确答案为B
[A] the language
[B] the language of which
[C] all it said
[D] which it had said
解析：the language of which引导非限定性定语从句，并在定语从句中做主语
9. Often music was played out of doors，_________ nature provided the environment. 正确答案为D
[C] in which
10. Many of us visited the industrial exhibition，_________，to our disappointment，we saw very few high-tech products. 正确答案为A
1. The purpose of making a decision is to establish and achieve organizational goals and objectives.
2. Managers must make a best guess at what the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance.
3. For managers，every decision has constraints based on policies，procedures，laws，precedents，and the like.
4. But the tendency to simplify blinds them to other alternatives.
5. Decision makers must have some way of determining which of several alternatives is best—that is，which contributes the most to the achievement of organizational goals.
6. Different individuals frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals，the best choice may depend on who makes the decision.
7. People often assume that a decision is an isolated phenomenon.
8. The literary critics should be as objective as possible in analysis and judgment.
9. She is always ready to argue over the smallest issues.
10. I argued him out of going on such a dangerous journey.
11. Although he thought he was helping us with the job，he was only in the way.
12. The terms we would normally use to describe a scientific phenomenon are inadequate here.
13. Astronomers and scientists think that a black hole is a region of space into which matter has fallen and from which nothing can escape.
14. Some stars explode when their density increases to a particular point.
15. This process of shrinking may be so intense that a black hole results.
16. It is only recently that astronomers have begun specific research into black holes.
17. Very advanced technology could one day make use of the energy of black holes for mankind.
18. He has exerted all his strength to attain his goal.
19. He has been exerting a lot of pressure on me to change my mind.
20. The collapse of the government left the country in confusion.
21. The research group launched out into a series of new experiments.
22. Each time it is shown，the program starts a nationwide debate on the subject.
23. In addition to this，a second doctor must confirm that these criteria have been met.
24. In the vast majority of euthanasia cases，what the patient is actually asking for is something else.
25. Euthanasia doesn't take into account that there are ways of caring for the dying.
26. Anything that legally allows the shortening of life does make those people more vulnerable.
27. Instructions will be sent immediately on request.
28. Many people opposed building a new highway because of the great cost.
29. She bore the whole burden of raising two children alone.
30. Students are heavily burdened with home assignments.
31. The committee demands that no member （should） be absent.
32. Of these 20，000，just under 2000 are being exploited and abused by their employers.
33. In one of them，a Filipino maid was executed in Singapore after being convicted of murder，despite protests from various quarters that her guilt had not been adequately established.
34. I was supposed to be paid ￡120 but I never received that amount.
35. My employers always threatened to report me to the Home Office or the police.
36. Many people doubt whether this will successfully reduce the incidence of abuse.
37. So if they do complain，they risk being deported.
38. It is the right to change employers which distinguishes employment from slavery.
39. The student exploits every possibility to learn English.
40. Our country is launching a campaign against waste.
41. We should be always aware of the status of world affairs.
42. There are likely to be more difficulties than you were prepared for.
43. The new music was built out of materials already in existence.
44. They freely took over elements from jazz，from American country music，and as time went on from even more diverse sources.
45. What developed was a music readily taking on various forms and capable of an almost limitless range of expression.
46. In studio recordings，new techniques made possible effects that not even an electronic band could produce live.
47. Electronic amplifiers also made possible a fantastic increase in volume，the music becoming as loud and penetrating as the human ear could stand
48. Often music was played out of doors，where nature provided the environment.
49 The social and political transformation of a country is essential to the development of the society.
50. All theories originate from practice and in turn serve practice.
51. Robots，becoming increasingly prevalent in factories and industrial plants throughout the developed world，are programmed and engineered to perform industrial tasks without human intervention.
52. The robots used in nuclear power plants handle the radioactive materials，preventing human personnel from being exposed to radiation.
53. Robots differ from automatic machines in that after completion of one specific task，they can be reprogrammed by a computer to do another one.
54. Other engineers are writing new programs allowing robots to make decisions such as whether to discard defective parts in finished products.
55. These future robots，assembled with a sense of touch and the ability to see and make decisions，will have plenty of work to do.
56. Anyone wanting to understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics.
57. His words cast a new light on the problem.
58. We should be aware of the dangers of exposing children to violence on TV.
59. People in advanced industrial societies are increasingly concerned with opportunities for leisure and what they can do in their leisure time.
60. Generally speaking，the quality of life，especially as seen by the individual，is meaningful in terms of the degree to which these various areas of life are available or provide satisfaction to the individual.
61. The specific use of leisure varies from individual to individual.
62. Experiences of a different nature，be it television watching or bird-watching，can lead to a self-renewal and a more “balanced” way of life.
63. Such attitudes amount to a recognition that leisure is an important area of life and a belief that leisure can and should be put to good use.
64. To impart positive leisure attitudes to the general public is essential for motivating them to use their leisure in creative and satisfying ways.
65. It can be argued that the people with whom we come into contact in these various contexts are all likely to have exerted some influence in shaping our attitudes，interests and even skills relevant to how we handle leisure.
66. The more seriously this is sought，the more likely positive attitudes towards leisure as well as academic work will be encouraged.
67. You have to attach a label to a box while posting it.
68. We should make our lives relevant to the needs of the country.
69. He always has some positive ideas on company policy.
70. The problem of Jet Lag is one every international traveler comes across at some time.
71. The effects of rapid travel on the body are actually far more disturbing than we realize.
72. He later blamed his poor judgment on Jet Lag.
73. Now that we understand what Jet Lag is，we can go some way to overcoming it.
74. In time，the physiological system will reset itself，but it does take time.
75. It is not feasible to wait four days until the body is used to the new time zone.
76. That is by no means the best way of proceeding.
77. He didn't take alarm at the news.
78. The pianist promoted a grand benefit concert.
79. He didn't want to be tied to a steady job.
80. The nearer a society approximates to zero population growth，the older its population is likely to be—at least，for any future that concerns us now.
81. To these now familiar facts a number of further facts may be added，some of them only recently recognized.
82. There is the appreciation of the salient historical truth that the aging of advanced societies has been a sudden change.
83. Taken together，these things have implications which are only beginning to be acknowledged.
84. There is often resistance to the idea that it is because the birthrate fell earlier in Western and Northwestern Europe than elsewhere，… that we have grown so old.
85. Long life is altering our society，of course，but in experiential terms.
86. Your account of what happened approximates to the real facts.
87. His earnings are out of all proportion to his skill and ability.
88. A minor-party or independent candidate，… can draw votes away from the major-party nominees but stands almost no chance of defeating them.
89. In deciding whether to pursue a course of action，they try to estimate its likely impact on the voters.
90. The slogan was meant as a reminder to the candidate and the staff to keep the campaign focused on the nation's slow-moving economy.
91. Whether voters accept this image，however，depends more on external factors than on a candidate's personal characteristics.
92. As in 1980，when Jimmy Carter lost to Ronald Reagan during tough economic times，the voters were motivated largely by a desire for change.
93. Bush tried to stir images of his strong leadership of the war，but voters remained concerned about the economy.
94. The invention is going to cause a big stir in the world.
95. You should save up money to make provision for the future.
96. Animal research is irrelevant to our health and it can often produce misleading results.
97. It would be completely irresponsible and unethical to use drugs on people that had not been thoroughly tested on animals.
98. One experiment in nerve regeneration involves cutting a big nerve in a rat's leg，leaving its leg paralysed.
99. Even with these new developments in research，only a tiny proportion of all tests are done without using animals at some stage.
100.The use of animals in experiments cannot stop immediately if medical research is to continue and consumer products are to be properly tested.
101. When it comes to research into heart disease and its effects on the body，we do not have adequate substitutes for the use of animals.
102. I was surprised to see his room in such a litter.
103. The conditions that existed ten years ago are reproduced today.
104. Until recently daydreaming was generally considered either a waste of time or a symptom of neurotic tendencies.
105. At its best，daydreaming was considered a compensatory substitute for the real things in life.
106. As with anything carried to excess，daydreaming can be harmful.
107. There is a growing body of evidence to support the fact that most people suffer from a lack of daydreaming rather than an excess of it.
108. Daydreaming significantly contributes to intellectual growth，power of concentration，and the ability to interact and communicate with others.
109. Daydreaming resulted in improved self-control and enhanced creative thinking ability.
110. Contrary to popular belief，constant and conscious effort at solving a problem is，in reality，one of the most inefficient ways of coping with it.
111. Whenever confronted with a task which seemed too hard to be dealt with，he would stretch out on his laboratory sofa and let fantasies flood his mind.
112. The important thing to remember is to picture these desired objectives as if you had already attained them.
113. Daydreaming is highly beneficial to your physical and mental well-being.
114. Escape being impossible，the rabbit turned to confront the dog.
115. The difficulties that confront us cannot be overcome.
116. He cannot be really happy if he is compelled by society to do what he does not enjoy doing，or if what he enjoys doing is ignored by society as of no value or importance.
117. In a society where slavery in the strict sense has been abolished，the sign that what a man does is of social value is that he is paid money to do it.
118. What from the point of view of society is necessary labor is from his own point of view voluntary play.
119. Whether a job is to be classified as labor or work depends，not on the job itself，but on the tastes of the individual who undertakes it.
120. It is already possible to imagine a society in which the majority of the population，that is to say，its laborers，will have almost as much leisure as in earlier times was enjoyed by the aristocracy.
121. The masses are more likely to replace an unchanging ritual by fashion which it will be in the economic interest of certain people to change as often as possible.
122. Workers seldom commit acts of violence，because they can put their aggression into their work，be it physical like the work of a smith，or mental like the work of a scientist or an artist.
123. They were often compelled to work twelve or fourteen hours a day.
124. The police undertook detailed and comprehensive investigations into the case.
125. The device，though，would do much more than capture a lecture.
126. It was a microcassette found in Kathleen Weinstein's shirt pocket that not only led police to her alleged killer but also revealed the New Jersey teacher to be a woman of extraordinary courage and compassion.
127. Grabbing Weinstein by the jaw，the attacker told her he had a gun and forced her into the Camry.
128. It was there，police believe，that Weinstein was able to activate the recorder she kept in her bag.
129. Her power of persuasion were to no avail.
130. Weinstein's body，with hands and feet bound，was discovered by a hiker in March.
131. Given her fate，the name of the program has a heartbreaking resonance to it： Random Acts of Kindness.
132. The operation fostered hope in the patient.
133. We protested but to no avail.
134. He was firmly convinced that risk accompanies decisions.
135. The computer makes possible a marvellous leap in human proficiency.
136. But the question persists and indeed grows whether the computer will make it easier or harder for human beings to know who they really are…。
137. There may be a tendency to mistake data for wisdom，just as there has always been a tendency to confuse logic with values，and intelligence with insight.
138. To the extent，then，that man fail to distinguish between the intermediate operations of electronic intelligence and the ultimate responsibilities of human decision，the computer could prove a digression.
139. It may promote undue confidence in concrete answers.
140. …before we lose ourselves in celebrating the victory，we might reflect on the great advances in the human situation that have come about because men were challenged by error and would not stop thinking and exploring until they found better approaches for dealing with it.
141. For the danger is not so much that man will be controlled by the computer as that he may imitate it.
142. Even to speculate on it is a gain.
143. If you persist in ignoring my instructions，I shall have to punish you.
144. His ultimate goal is too distant and shadowy to obtain.
145. Despite their differences，their love will conquer.
146. It has taken him a long time to come to terms with the fact that he won't be able to go to college.
For over a hundred years Japan has consistently spent large sums of money and considerable human resources in an effort to obtain technology. Her ability to negotiate _________11 by the fact that most of the technology she wanted was no commercial secrets.
Japan's _________12 has also been strengthened by the fact that her internal market was large，so that _________13 to this market could be offered to multinational companies as an attraction to them to grant licenses. Besides，Japan's work force was disciplined，so it was capable _________14 applying the information it acquired. Finally，American and European companies，who were _________15 licensers， felt that the Japanese companies might take a large share of the world market _________16 they were not limited by licensing agreement.
Conditions of this sort，_________17 together in one nation，may well be unique，and the case of Japan may therefore not actually demonstrate that licensing is just as efficient as multinational ownership for the _________18 of technology.
In fact，Japan may be finding this method of operation _________19 effective than in the past，as her needs for outside technology now require information which _________20 only a few companies and is more closely held.
11.A. was strengthened
B. will be strengthened
C. will have been strengthened
D. has been strengthened
C. will come
20.A. sticks to
B. belongs to
C. draws on
D. takes on
答案：11D A B D A 16C D B C B
NASA，the U.S. space agency，believes there's a good chance that we're not alone in the universe. Last fall，NASA began a new project called the High Resolution Microwave Survey（HRMS）.Its aim：to find evidence of life in one of the billions of galaxies in the universe.
The search for intelligent life on other planets isn't new. It began almost 100 years ago. That's when scientists built a huge transmitter to send radio waves into space. Scientists thought smart beings on other planets might pick up the signals.
Scientists also have sent a message about humans and our solar system to a nearby constellation（星座）。But because the constellation is 25，000 light years away，a return message wouldn't reach Earth for 50，000 years！So don't wait up for an answer.
So far，no extraterrestrial （地球外的）beings that we know of have returned our “calls.” But according to Dr. Jill Tarter，an HRMS scientist，we haven't exactly had our ears wide open. “Now，however” says Dr. Tarter， “we've built the tools we need to listen well.”
Last October，Dr. Tarter switched on the largest radio receiver in the world. It's an enormous metal bowl stretching 1，000 feet across a valley in Puerto Rico.
Meanwhile，another NASA scientist turned on a huge radio receiver in California's Mojave Desert. NASA hopes these big dishes-and others around the world-will pick up radio signals from new world.
Dr. Frank Drake has been searching for life in outer space for years. He explains the HRMS project this way：To listen to your radio，you move the tuner on the dial until the channels come in loud and clear：Now imagine radio receivers that scan our galaxy “listening” to 14 million channels every second. That's what NASA's radio receivers in Puerto Rico and California are doing.
But that's not all. Powerful computers hooked to the receivers examine every signal carefully. The computers try to match the signals to ones that scientists already recognize， such as human-made signals. If they can't，Drake and Tarter check on them. “It could prove there is radio technology elsewhere in the universe，” says Dr. Tarter. “And that would mean we're not alone.”
26.NASA scientists started a new project in order to _________.
A. discover life in other galaxies
B. send human beings into space
C. find evidence of a new galaxy
D. confirm the number of galaxies
27.According to Dr. Jill Tarter，the reason why we haven't received any return any return messages from outer space is that _________.
A. our ears are not sharp enough to hear them
B. our equipment hasn't been good enough
C. it takes millions of years for them to reach us
D. it takes quite a long time to send them
28.Dr. Jill Tarter compares the large receiver to _________.
A. the human ear
B. the universe
C. a metal bowl
D. a huge dish
29.According to Dr. Frank Drake，NASA's radio receivers in Puerto Rico and California are _________.
A. trying to check on every channel carefully
B. moving the tuner on the dial for clear channels
C. scanning the universe for possible signals
D. picking up radio signals from new world
30.The best title of this passage is _________.
A. Signals from the Space
B. The Invention of New Radio Receivers
C. The Intelligent Life in Outer Space
D. NASA Listens for Space Neighbors
答案：26 A B A C D
I've spent years studying happiness，and one of the most significant conclusions I've drawn is this：there is little correlation between the circumstances of people's lives and how happy they are. A moment's reflection should make this obvious. We all know people who have had a relatively easy life yet are essentially unhappy. And we know people who have suffered a great deal but generally remain happy.
The first secret is gratitude. All happy people are grateful. Ungrateful people cannot be happy. We tend to think that being unhappy leads people to complain，but it's truer to say that complaining leads people to unhappiness. The second secret is realizing that happiness is a byproduct of something else. The most obvious sources are those pursuits that give our lives purposes—anything from studying insects to playing baseball. The more passions we have，the more happiness we're likely to experience.